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Citation Help

This guide will provide you with the basics of APA, MLA, and CSE citations including sample papers, how to set up your research paper in Microsoft Word, and how to cite in-text sources.

Direct Quotations & Paraphrasing

In-Text Citations

Name-Year (N-Y) system is the type of CSE style most frequently used at St. Petersburg College (see page 492 in the Scientific Format and Guide book).  This uses the surname of the author and the year of publication to refer to the end references which are then listed alphabetically by author and then by year:


Research on candy preference has shown that chocolate was most desired (Walker and Higgins 2013).

In their research on candy, Walker and Higgins (2013) noted that chocolate was the most desired.


Type of Citation   Format    Example 
Single author and year given Author Last name  Year (Martin  2002)
Multiple works by the same author in different years Author last name   First year, Second year (Cullifer  2011, 2012)
Multiple works by the same author in the same year Author last name  Year a, Year b (Walker  2011a, 2011b)
Authors with the same last name Author last name first initial; Author last name first initial (Ester S 2003;  Ester R 2003)
Multiple authors Author last name and author last name Year (Money and Perez 1999)
Corporation/Organization as author Abbreviated title of organization (IRS 1995)
Work without an author First word or first few words of the title (Scientific Style 2005)
Work with multiple dates Last name(s) and first and last years with hyphen (Johnson and Bozarth 1999-2004)
Work with no date available Author and [date unknown] (Khan [date unknown])