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Citation Help

This guide will provide you with the basics of APA, MLA, and CSE citations including sample papers, how to set up your research paper in Microsoft Word, and how to cite in-text sources.

Books (Print & Online)

Book: General

AuthorLastname FN. Year. Book title. Edition. Location: Publisher.
AuthorLastname FN. Year. Book title [Medium]. Edition. Location: publisher; [access    date]. Available from: http://www.xxxxxxxx.


Entire Book: Print Version

Gutman RW. 1999. Mozart: A cultural biography. New York (NY): Harcourt Brace.


Entire Book: E-book (electronic book from SPC)


Gutman RW. 1999. Mozart: A cultural biography [Internet]. New York (NY): Harcourt Brace; [cited 2013 Nov 13]. Available from:



Entire Book:
Print Version (Two Authors)

Hock R, Price G. 2004. The extreme searcher’s Internet handbook: a guide for the serious searcher. Medford (NJ): CyberAge Books.


Entry in Online Reference Work

Graham G. Behaviorism. In: Zalta EN, editor. The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. 2nd. ed. 2005. Available from:


Entry in Online Reference Work (No Author)

Trebuchet. In Merriam-Webster online dictionary. 11th ed. 2009. Available from: http://www.merriam


No Author

Begin citation with title. For example:

NAICS desk reference: The North American industry classification system desk reference. 2000. Indianapolis (IN): JIST Works.


Chapter in a Book

Willson Jr RF. William Shakespeare's theater. In: Rosenblum J, editor. The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students. Westport (CT): Greenwood Press; 2005. p. 47-64.


For additional examples, see pages 527-534 in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2006).

Journal Articles (Print & Online)

Journal: General

AuthorLastname FI. Date. Article title. Journal title. Volume(issue):location.

Journal Article (print)

Graham S. 2006. Impossible to hold: women and culture in the 1960s. J Am Stud. 40:156-159.

Journal Article (online with DOI)

Herbst-Damm KL, Kulik JA. 2005. Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psych [Internet]. [cited 2013 Dec 4]; 24:225-229. Available from: doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Journal Article (online without DOI)

Sillick TJ, Schutte NS. 2006. Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-J of App Psych [Internet]. [cited 2013 Dec 3]; 2(2):38-48. Available from:

Magazine Article (print)

Reed S. 2006 Aug 21. Seeing past the war. Business Week. 16(4):35-36.

Magazine Article (online)

Clay R. 2008 June. Science vs. ideology: psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology [Internet]. [cited 2013 Dec 3]; 39(6). Available from:

Newspaper Article (print)

Seward Z. 2006 Dec 14. Colleges expand early admissions. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Ed.). Sect. D:1 (col. 1).

Newspaper Article (online)

Brody JE. 2007 Dec 11. Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times [Internet]. [cited 2013 Dec 4]. Available from:

For additional examples, see pages 518-527, 543-545, 558 in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2006).

Audiovisual Media

Entire Albums

The Beatles. 1967. Sgt. pepper’s lonely heart club’s band [record]. United States: Capitol Records.

Individual Songs

Glover F. 2009. One way ticket. Politico [CD]. n.l.: Owl Studios.

Spoken Word Recording

1988. To kill a mockingbird [cassette]. Darling S, speaker. United States: Recorded Books.

Musical Score

Beethoven LV. 1932. Symphony no. 7 in a major, op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson.


Van Nuys D, producer. 2007 Dec 19. Shrink rap radio [audio podcast]. Available from:

Motion Picture Spielberg S, director. 1982. E.T. the extra-terrestrial [motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

Ryan KO, Schrank L. 2008. Body language I: Beyond words [DVD]. Available from:

Single Episode from Television Series

David L, Seinfeld J. 1995. The soup nazi [television series episode]. Seinfeld. New York: NBC.

Map Retrieved Online

Lewis County Geographic Information Systems, cartographer. 2002. Population density, 2000 US census [demographic map]. Available from:

List the primary contributors in the author position and use parentheses to identify their contribution.

For additional examples, see pages 545-556 in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2006).

Other Online Sources

Online Posting: General

AuthorLastname F. Year. Title of post [Description of form]. Available from http://www.xxxx

Entire website

University of Maryland at College Park. 2008. Technology in higher education [Internet]. [updated 2011 Jan 15; cited 2013 Nov 5]. Available from 

Message Posted to Newsgroup, Discussion Group, Online Forum, etc.

Rampersad T. 2005 Jun 8. Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions [forum on the Internet]. [cited 2013 Dec 3]. Available from

Message Posted to Electronic Mailing List

Smith S. 2006 Jan 5. In: Disputed estimates of IQ [electronic mailing list message on the Internet]. [cited 2013 Nov 1]. Available from

(Note: "Listserv" is a trademarked name for a specific software program, so use "electronic mailing list" instead.)

Blog Post

MiddleKid. 2007 Jan 22. In: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [web log message on the Internet]. Available from

(Note: "MiddleKid" is a screen name, which the author used when posting to this blog.)

For additional examples, see pages 556-564 in the Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2006).

Personal Communications

Personal communications may be private letters, memos, non-archived electronic communications (email), personal interviews, etc. Because they do not provide recoverable data, they are not included in the reference list.

Instead, you should cite these sources in your text with initial and last name of the communicator and the date.


The director proposed that we cut costs in the personnel department in order to open a greater budget for student services (2013 email from RL Jones to me; unreferenced, see "Notes").

Please note that you must obtain written permission from the author (if living) of personal communications. Acknowledgment of such permission should be included in a "Notes" section at the end of the main text of your essay, article, or book.

For additional information and examples, see page 568 in the Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2006).

CSE Styles

Please note that there are three different systems that you can use with CSE:

  • Name-Year
  • Citation-Sequence
  • Citation-Name

The end references and in-text references will look different depending on which system you use. The examples on this page are done using the Name-Year system. Please check with your instructor if you are unsure of which system to use for your assignment.